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His first major priority was the passage of the Revenue Act of 1913, which lowered tariffs and implemented a federal income tax. [258] Fourteen senators, mostly Republicans, were known as the "irreconcilables" as they completely opposed U.S. entrance into the League of Nations. Wilson’s doctoral thesis was also his first book, Congressional Government: A Study in American Politics (1885), which further developed his comparison between the American and parliamentary government and suggested reforms that would make the American system more efficient and more answerable to public opinion. Wilson became a prominent 1912 presidential contender immediately upon his election as Governor of New Jersey in 1910, and his clashes with state party bosses enhanced his reputation with the rising Progressive movement. Wilson, and only Wilson, is quoted in the film (three times) as a scholar of American history, and made no protest over the misquotation of his words. Wilson ordonna dans le même temps des interventions militaires à Cuba, au Panama et au Honduras. [24], After graduating from Princeton in 1879,[26] Wilson attended the University of Virginia School of Law, where he was involved in the Virginia Glee Club and served as president of the Jefferson Literary and Debating Society. With the support of the Democratic Congress, Wilson introduced a comprehensive program of domestic legislation at the outset of his administration, something no president had ever done before.

Germany was required to pay war reparations and subjected to military occupation in the Rhineland. While the convention strongly endorsed Wilson's policies, Democratic leaders were unwilling to support the ailing Wilson for a third term, and instead nominated a ticket consisting of Governor James M. Cox and Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D.

Deux ans plus tard, il désigna Louis Brandeis, ce qui déclencha une vive polémique au Sénat car Brandeis était un progressiste et le premier juif nommé à la Cour suprême. [228] Baden immediately sought an armistice with Wilson, with the Fourteen Points to serve as the basis of the German surrender. [107] A massive agricultural price collapse was averted in 1919 in early 1920 through the efforts of Hoover's Food Administration, but prices dropped substantially in late 1920.

[113] Palmer warned of a massive 1920 May Day uprising, but after the day passed by without incident, the Red Scare largely dissipated.

The day passed by without incident, causing many to criticize Palmer. Wilson extracted from Germany a pledge to constrain submarine warfare to the rules of cruiser warfare, which represented a major diplomatic concession. [232], With the American entrance into World War I in April 1917, Wilson became a war-time president. He retired from public office in 1921 and died in 1924.

Les États-Unis avaient initialement l'intention de poursuivre leurs échanges commerciaux avec les Alliés et les puissances centrales, mais le blocus de l'Allemagne par la flotte britannique obligea Wilson, après quelques négociations, à s'aligner sur la position de Londres.

He also negotiated a treaty with Colombia that would have paid that country an indemnity for the U.S. role in the secession of Panama, but the Senate defeated this treaty. [53] In 1896, Francis Landey Patton announced that Princeton would henceforth officially be known as Princeton University instead of the College of New Jersey, and he unveiled an ambitious program of expansion that included the establishment of a graduate school. Ross A. Kennedy, "Preparedness," in Ross A. Kennedy, ed., Robert D. Ward, "The Origin and Activities of the National Security League, 1914-1919,", Simeon Larson, "The American Federation of Labor and the Preparedness Controversy. Students were to meet in groups of six under the guidance of teaching assistants known as preceptors. [100] Though Wilson's shift to the left won the admiration of many, it also created enemies such as George Brinton McClellan Harvey, a former Wilson supporter who had close ties to Wall Street.

On the night of September 25, on a train bound for Wichita, Kansas, Wilson collapsed from mental and physical stress, and the rest of his tour was cancelled. After weeks of hearings and debate, Wilson and Secretary of State Bryan managed to unite Senate Democrats behind the bill. [92] Anarchists, communists, Industrial Workers of the World members, and other antiwar groups attempting to sabotage the war effort were targeted by the Department of Justice; many of their leaders were arrested for incitement to violence, espionage, or sedition. "[211], In 1919, Wilson guided American foreign policy to "acquiesce" in the Balfour Declaration without supporting Zionism in an official way. His father, Joseph Ruggles Wilson (1822-1903), was a Presbyterian minister, and his mother, Janet Woodrow Wilson (1826-1888), was a minister’s daughter and originally from England. One of Princeton's six residential colleges was originally named Wilson College. [149] Many Germans viewed American trade with the Allies as decidedly unneutral.

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