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wind spacecraft wiki


[167] The fastest wind on any known planet is on HD 80606 b located 190 light years away, where it blows at more than 11,000 mph or 5 km/s.

Wind pressures are positive on the windward side of a structure and negative on the leeward side. Media in category "Wind (spacecraft)" The following 14 files are in this category, out of 14 total. [168], Theoretical power captured by a wind turbine, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. [137] Increases in wind above 15 kilometers per hour (9.3 mph) signals glaucous gulls to increase their foraging and aerial attacks on thick-billed murres.[138]. [19] A storm has winds of 56 knots (104 km/h) to 63 knots (117 km/h). Although wind is not the primary form of seed dispersal in plants, it provides dispersal for a large percentage of the biomass of land plants. The strongest observed winds on a planet in the Solar System occur on Neptune and Saturn. Below is a summary of the classifications used by Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers worldwide: The Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF Scale) rates the strength of tornadoes in the United States by using damage to estimate wind speed. Strong winds of intermediate duration (around one minute) are termed squalls. [117] Spring storm systems moving across the eastern Mediterranean Sea cause dust to carry across Egypt and the Arabian peninsula, which are locally known as Khamsin.
Each full flag depicts 10 knots (19 km/h) of wind. This temperature change causes the daytime sea breeze to dissipate. First statistical study of high frequency (≥1 kHz) electric field fluctuations in the ramp of, Observation of the largest whistler wave using a search coil magnetometer in the, First observation of the source region of an IP Type II, First evidence to suggest that the observed bi-polar ES structures in the shock transition region are consistent with.
[33] Its poleward progression is accelerated by the development of a heat low over the Asian, African, and North American continents during May through July, and over Australia in December. The results of the above calculation are included in an index developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab and referred to as "NREL CLASS". The cooler air above the sea, now with higher sea level pressure, flows inland into the lower pressure, creating a cooler breeze near the coast. The SWE and 3DP experiments are meant to measure/analyze the lower energy (below 10 MeV) solar wind protons and electrons. The Calima carries dust on southeast winds into the Canary islands. In Poland, an example is the halny wiatr. When winds become strong, trees and human-made structures are damaged or destroyed. [98] The first practical windmills were later built in Sistan, Afghanistan, from the 7th century CE. A relation between the input and output wind velocity must be considered. 1 – Surface Weather Observations and Reports September 2005, "Section 2. Wind data can be accessed using the SPEDAS software. [76] The thermal wind concept explains how differences in wind speed with height are dependent on horizontal temperature differences, and explains the existence of the jet stream. [8] The two types of detectors have energy reions ranging from ΔE/E ≈ 0.3 for the solid state telescopes (SST) and ΔE/E ≈ 0.2 for the top-hat ES analyzers. Well-constructed and whole frame houses completely leveled; some frame homes may be swept away; cars and other large objects thrown and small missiles generated. In Europe, similar winds are known as the Bora, Tramontane, and Mistral. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth. The westerlies can be particularly strong, especially in the southern hemisphere, where there is less land in the middle latitudes to cause the flow pattern to amplify, which slows the winds down. In several countries it has achieved relatively high levels of penetration, accounting for approximately 19% of electricity production in Denmark, 10% in Spain and Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. On the opposite side (SST-Open), a common broom magnet is used to refuse electrons below ~400 keV from entering but leaves the ions essentially unaffected. [149] Such a process over geologic time causes water-rich planets such as the Earth to evolve into planets like Venus. Each half of a flag depicts 5 knots (9.3 km/h) of wind. The fastest wind ever recorded is coming from the accretion disc of the IGR J17091-3624 black hole. When a difference in atmospheric pressure exists, air moves from the higher to the lower pressure area, resulting in winds of various speeds.

Solar Wind Workhorse Marks 20 Years of Science Discoveries (16149052746).jpg 2,880 × 1,440; 155 KB The SST-Foil data structures typically have 7 energy bins each with 48 data points while the SST-Open has 9 energy bins each with 48 data points. [162] On Uranus, northern hemisphere wind speeds reach as high as 240 meters per second (540 mph) near 50 degrees north latitude. Directly under the subtropical ridge are the doldrums, or horse latitudes, where winds are lighter. [62] In 2011 wind energy was also used to power the longest journey in a wind-powered car which travelled a distance of 5,000 km (3,100 miles) from Perth to Melbourne in Australia. The SMS experiment measures the mass and mass-to-charge ratios of heavy ions. [102], Wind figures prominently in several popular sports, including recreational hang gliding, hot air ballooning, kite flying, snowkiting, kite landboarding, kite surfing, paragliding, sailing, and windsurfing. [113] Dust events have been linked to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s. It takes into account wind velocity and mass. The strongest westerly winds in the middle latitudes are within a band known as the Roaring Forties, between 40 and 50 degrees latitude south of the equator. [105], During mid-summer (July in the northern hemisphere), the westward-moving trade winds south of the northward-moving subtropical ridge expand northwestward from the Caribbean into southeastern North America. The science objectives of the WIND mission are: Provide complete plasma, energetic particle, and magnetic field input for magnetospheric and ionospheric studies. The wind is also an important means of transportation for seeds and small birds; with time things can travel thousands of miles in the wind.

It was deployed to study radio and plasma that occur in the solar wind and in the Earth's magnetosphere before the solar wind reaches the Earth. [144] The most powerful gusts of wind on Earth were created by nuclear detonations. [124] Plant varieties near the coast, such as the Sitka spruce and sea grape,[125] are pruned back by wind and salt spray near the coastline. As of March 22, 2016 (not including 2016 publications), the total number of publications either directly or indirectly using Wind data is ~3903. This type of gas loss from a planet into space is known as planetary wind.

Examples of these parts are balconies, ventilation openings, roof openings or cables. A tailwind increases takeoff distance required and decreases the climb gradient. High winds scour away thin soils through erosion,[123] as well as damage limbs and twigs. It is a calculation relating to the effective force of the wind at a particular location, frequently expressed in terms of the elevation above ground level over a period of time. Areas of wind shear caused by various weather phenomena can lead to dangerous situations for aircraft. The angular resolutions are 22.5° x 36° for the SST and 5.6° (near the ecliptic) to 22.5° for the top-hat ES analyzers. Thus, if no higher energy particles penetrate the detector walls, the SST-Foil should only measure electrons and the SST-Open only ions. [133] Bird migration, which tends to occur overnight within the lowest 7,000 feet (2,100 m) of the Earth's atmosphere, contaminates wind profiles gathered by weather radar, particularly the WSR-88D, by increasing the environmental wind returns by 15 knots (28 km/h) to 30 knots (56 km/h). One should note that observation of the plasma line requires the dipole antenna to be longer than the local Debye length, λDe.

[145] Sunlight warms the ground during the day and causes air currents to travel uphill, and downhill during the night as the land cools. [81] In Norse mythology, Njörðr is the god of the wind. Under appropriate climatic conditions, areas with loess are among the most agriculturally productive in the world. The strongest observed winds on a planet in the Globally, the two major driving factors of large-scale wind patterns (the atmospheric circulation) are the differential heating between the equator and the poles (difference in absorption of solar energy leading to buoyancy forces) and the rotation of the planet. The spin axis dipole, defined as Ez, is roughly 12 m tip-to-tip. In Java, the local name for such winds is koembang.

[100] Horizontal-axle windmills were later used extensively in Northwestern Europe to grind flour beginning in the 1180s, and many Dutch windmills still exist.

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