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the great plague

[17] It was not until 1894 that the identification by Alexandre Yersin of its causal agent Yersinia pestis was made and the transmission of the bacterium by rat fleas became known. When finally covered with earth it housed 1,114 corpses.

The book was written by Pamela Oldfield, her first for the series. The Great Plague of London in 1665 was the last in a long series of plague epidemics that first began in London in June 1499. London’s mournful silence was broken by the noise of carts carrying the dead for burial in parish churches or communal plague pits such as Finsbury Field in Cripplegate and the open fields in Southwark. Appleby, Andrew B. the Great Plague (of London) 発音を聞く 例文帳に追加 ロンドンの大疫病 《1664‐1665 年》. See the bottom of each page for copyright information. [46] Another food source was the villages around London which, denied of their usual sales in the capital, left vegetables in specified market areas, negotiated their sale by shouting, and collected their payment after the money had been left submerged in a bucket of vinegar to “disinfect” the coins. Old Saint Paul's :a tale of the plague and the fire. Analysis of the Bills of Mortality during the months plague took hold shows a rise in deaths other than by plague well above the average death rate, which has been attributed to misrepresentation of the true cause of death. Lord Clarendon estimated that the true number of mortalities was probably twice that figure. either for deaths or burials.” A month later, when London’s mortality rate rose sharply, Pepys noted that survivors “are fain to carry the dead to be buried by daylight, the nights not sufficing to do it in.”, In another eyewitness account, Loimographia (1665), William Boghurst, a general practitioner who accurately described the symptoms of plague and predicted its demise in 1666, attributed the plague’s causes to filth and squalor, inadequate disposal of sewage, and poor nutrition among London’s impoverished residents. The last recorded death from plague came in 1679, and it was removed as a specific category in the Bills of Mortality after 1703. Belinda Hollyer (ed. [37], By July 1665, plague was rampant in the City of London. The authorities became concerned that the number of deaths might cause public alarm and ordered that body removal and interment should take place only at night. A second inspection line was established between the forts on opposite banks of the Thames at Tilbury and Gravesend with instructions only to pass ships with a certificate. Publications - The Great Plague at Its Peak, Publications - Samuel Pepys and William Boghurst: Eyewitness Accounts, Publications - The Great Plague in Fictional Literature, See Also (Related Contagion Exhibit Pages). This official activity suggests that despite the few recorded cases, the government was already aware that this was a serious outbreak of plague. The better-off used hackney carriages and sedan chairs to get to their destinations without getting filthy. Quakers refused to co-operate and many of the poor were just dumped into mass graves unrecorded. It died out during the Great Fire that same year and never returned. His notes during 1665 often intimate the severity of London’s Great Plague epidemic. [32], With the arrival of warmer weather, the disease began to take a firmer hold. 99–101 Leasor (1962) pp.

[44], Trade and business had dried up, and the streets were empty of people except for the dead-carts and the dying victims, as witnessed and recorded by Samuel Pepys in his diary: “Lord! Thinking bad air was involved in transmission, the authorities ordered giant bonfires to be burned in the streets and house fires to be kept burning night and day, in the hope that the air would be cleansed.

The Great Plague appears in fictional works, such as William Harrison Ainsworth’s Old Saint Paul’s (1847) and Daniel Defoe’s A Journal of the Plague Year (1722), in which he describes London as “quite abandoned to despair.”. [50], According to the Bills of Mortality, there were in total 68,596 deaths in London from the plague in 1665. In both of these localities, poor workers were crowded into ill-kept structures. [40] As time went on, there were too many victims, and too few drivers, to remove the bodies which began to be stacked up against the walls of houses.

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Justices of the Peace in Middlesex were instructed to investigate any suspected cases and to shut up the house if it was confirmed. The rich ran away, including King Charles II of England, his family and his court, who left the city for Salisbury, moving on to Oxford in September when some cases of plague occurred in Salisbury. [58] King Charles ll did much to foster the rebuilding work. 1666 saw further deaths in other cities but on a lesser scale. In 1665, he revised his estimate to ‘not above 460,000’. [13], Some of the city’s necessities such as coal arrived by barge, but most came by road. [54], The plague in London largely affected the poor, as the rich were able to leave the city by either retiring to their country estates or residing with kin in other parts of the country. ((正式))(特に天罰としての)災い, 災難, 天災(disaster);不幸, 不運(misfortune);不幸[災い]の種(curse). The credulous blamed emanations from the earth, “pestilential effluviums”, unusual weather, sickness in livestock, abnormal behaviour of animals or an increase in the numbers of moles, frogs, mice or flies. Two naval ships were assigned to intercept any vessels entering the Thames estuary. The Tower of London was an independent liberty, as were others. plague (countable かつ uncountable, 複数形 plagues), plague (三人称単数 現在形 plagues, 現在分詞 plaguing, 過去形および過去分詞形 plagued), London was visited by the plague in 1665.発音を聞く例文帳に追加, an incantation to drive away a plague発音を聞く例文帳に追加, The plague was about that year.発音を聞く例文帳に追加, The plague carried off thousands of people [took a toll of thousands of lives].発音を聞く例文帳に追加, (in Buddhism) the three main disasters by war, plague and famine発音を聞く例文帳に追加, A plague broke out that killed thousands of people.例文帳に追加, ピン留めアイコンをクリックすると単語とその意味を画面の右側に残しておくことができます。, Weblio英和対訳辞書はプログラムで機械的に意味や英語表現を生成しているため、不適切な項目が含まれていることもあります。ご了承くださいませ。, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA). Tens of thousands of dogs and cats were killed to eliminate a feared source of contagion, and mounds of rotting garbage were burned. [16], At that time, bubonic plague was a much feared disease but its cause was not understood. [15], The administration of the City of London was organised by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and common councillors, but not all of the inhabited area generally comprising London was legally part of the City. Old Saint Paul’s: A Tale of the Plague and the Fire. [56], Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by Robert Hooke as Surveyor of London. [35] On 30 April he wrote: “Great fears of the sickness here in the City it being said that two or three houses are already shut up. [31], There had been three official cases in April, a level of plague which in earlier years had not induced any official response, but the Privy Council now acted to introduce household quarantine. Several public health efforts were attempted.

Copyright (C) 1994- Nichigai Associates, Inc., All rights reserved. [28] Contemporary accounts suggest cases of plague occurred through the winter of 1664/5, some of which were fatal but a number of which did not display the virulence of the later epidemic. Quarantining of ships had been used during previous outbreaks and was again introduced for ships coming to London in November 1663, following outbreaks in Amsterdam and Hamburg. The number of deaths as a result of plague may have been underestimated, as deaths in other years in the same period were much lower, at around 300. [47], The outbreak was concentrated in London, but it affected other areas as well. [49] As a result of these events, London was largely rebuilt and Parliament enacted the Rebuilding of London Act 1666. In 1563, a thousand people were reportedly dying in London each week. (any large scale calamity (especially when thought to be sent by God)), (any epidemic disease with a high death rate), ペスト菌によって起き、感染した動物の血を吸ったノミによって偶然感染する深刻な感染症(時には致命的な), (a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal). The Lord Mayor of London, Sir John Lawrence, also decided to stay in the city.

The Causes & Cure of the Pestilence, or, a Brief Collection of Those Provoking Sins Recorded in the Holy Scriptures, for Which the Lord Hath Usually Sent the Sore Destroying Pestilence or Plague Among a People: Together with Some Special Receipts and Preservativies [sic] against the Further Encrease of This Pestilential Disease, and May Serve as a Seasonable Call from the Lord to Invite All Sorts of People to a Speedy Return unto the Lord, and a Forsaking of Those Sins, Which Otherwise Will Cause the Wrath of the Lord to Break Out Among Us, So That There Will Be No Remedy. From Middle English plage, borrowed from Old French plage, from Latin plāga (“blow, wound”), from plangō (“to strike”). That September, the Great Fire of London destroyed much of the City of London, and some people believed that the fire put an end to the epidemic. Dr Thomas Gumble, chaplain to the Duke of Albemarle, both of whom had stayed in London for the whole of the epidemic, estimated that the total death count for the country from plague during 1665 and 1666 was about 200,000. Central parts of London were rebuilt with wider streets to relieve crowding and better sewage systems to improve sanitation.

[1], The Great Plague killed an estimated 100,000 people—almost a quarter of London’s population—in 18 months. Businesses were closed when merchants and professionals fled. In the city, the Lord Mayor issued a proclamation that all householders must diligently clean the streets outside their property, which was a householder’s responsibility, not a state one (the city employed scavengers and rakers to remove the worst of the mess). Ships from ports free of plague or completing their quarantine were given a certificate of health and allowed to travel on. Not only was the capital rejuvenated, but it became a healthier environment in which to live. Regulations were enforced quite strictly, so that people or houses where voyagers had come ashore without serving their quarantine were also subjected to 40 days of quarantine. Well-off residents soon fled to the countryside, leaving the poor behind in impoverished and decrepit parishes. These properties were soon vandalised and became rat-infested slums.

[14], Outside the city walls, suburbs had sprung up providing homes for the craftsmen and tradespeople who flocked to the already overcrowded city. [53], As a proportion of the population who died, the London death toll was less severe than in some other towns.

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