The Swiss have watches, Japan has electronics, the US has … Where, instead, national commitment in favor of the war proved to be timid, this was due to adherence to socialist ideologies or strong admiration for the contacts established with the German cultural world. In the second place, with the passing months, scientific nationalism, fueled by the rejection of “Teutonic” science, almost became a dogma: Italian science could not and should not fear foreign sciences, it should be proud of its own tradition, which, at times rediscovered and at times manipulated, bore witness to its autochthonous greatness. Think Innovation, Impact, and Integration. II: La “grande guerra” e le sue conseguenze, issued by Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL, online. First developed around 312 B.C., these engineering marvels used gravity to transport water along stone, lead and concrete pipelines and into city centers. The same wartime pressures also brought into being industries like the Società Veneziana Automobili Navali (SVAN, 1917), from whose shipyards and workshops, gradually technologically improved, there would emerge new weapons like the famous offshore armed motorboats (MAS). The knowledge of aviation medicine was advanced - especially in terms of cardiac and pulmonary functions - which, in addition to better delineating the physiological reactions to flight, finally permitted the production of liquid oxygen as an anesthetic.. The Broglio Space Center is an Italian spaceport located near Kenya and has been used to launch both Italian and International satellites. Renzetti, Roberto: Scienza, tecnica, scuola e sviluppo industriale in Italia dall’Unità alla vigilia della Seconda Guerra Mondiale, issued by Fisica/Mente. In July 1916, the National Scientific Technical Committee for the Development and Growth of Italian Industry (Comitato nazionale scientifico tecnico per lo sviluppo e l’incremento dell’industria italiana, or CNST) came into being. When one speaks of Italy, one of the most important chapters that has to be discussed is Italy’s technological revolution. This was also the contemporary opinion of the mathematician Vito Volterra, a prominent figure in the mobilization of Italian scientists, who would depict the conflict as a parenthesis in the ordinary evolution of pure research. After November 1918, the approach to science and technology, until then largely inspired by 19th century positivism’s ingenuous scientism or the anti-scientific prejudice of the idealism of figures such as Benedetto Croce (1866-1952) and Giovanni Gentile (1875-1944) – dominant in the Italian cultural debate in the early decades of the 1900s - was called into question. Il ruolo dei ricercatori e del CNR nella politica autarchica del fascismo, Rome 2003, p. 15-16. Italy Transforms Itself into a High-Tech Hotbed. Overall, Italian medicine was called upon to deal with a dual task: to continue pure research in the difficult context of the war; and to provide and maintain an adequate standard in helping those in need of medical attention. Of essential importance, in this context, was the work of the mathematician Mauro Picone (1885-1977), on the front in the Venetian Pre-Alps between 1916 and 1917.. ): Battles, battlefields and campaigns, Italy. Through this incorporation, which involved the transfer of highly professional units from civil to military structures, the technical-scientific sector was formed and then consolidated, and directed at contributing directly to the war effort. The ambivalent impact of technology on the conditions of life and death of soldiers and civilians and the cultural influences arising from the conflict (even in the long term) should not, however, be confused. This active role was further consolidated in March 1917 when, at the Ministry of War, the Office of Inventions and Research (Ufficio Invenzioni e Ricerche, or UIR) there came into being – the organizational nucleus of the future National Research Council (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, or CNR). The kingdom of Italy entered the First World War on 24 May 1915, about a year after the outbreak of the conflict between the Central Powers and the nations of the Entente (July/August 1914). Balestra, Gian Luca: La formazione degli ufficiali nell´Accademia Militare di Modena (1895-1939), Rome 2000, pp. ): Gentile, Giovanni / Tumminelli, Calogero (eds. In the first place, there was a renewed uncritical faith in scientific utilitarianism, which was seen as science’s ability to resolve problems and therefore, specifically, every type of wartime challenge, as long as it was put in a position to do so, through adequate structures and financing. Maiocchi, Gli scienziati del Duce 2003, pp. They followed a twin track, and were often not coordinated. Mention should be made of Antonino Lo Surdo’s research about underwater listening, the construction and use of C Tubes and the study of Langevin waves. In fact, that was where, amid hesitations, delays and difficulties of various kinds, the scientists’ skills came to be tangibly employed, while the traditional hierarchies between pure and applied science were deeply modified. In summary, there were two collective attitudes which emerged between 1915 and 1918 in the sphere of the national sciences. Finally, there were also more complex individual paths: the chemist Ettore Molinari (1867-1926), whose opinion was close to anarchist positions and who was an outspoken critic of Italy's entry into the war, nevertheless accepted a position directing military operations at the SIPE explosives plant at Cengis, and produced excellent results. On the one hand, the processes which had begun in the early post-Risorgimento years came to fruition: a national scientific sector slowly branched out and took its first steps.
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