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panavia tornado


[81] The newer RAPTOR reconnaissance pod replaced the built-in TIRRS system. ", "FIRST UPGRADED TORNADO ECR DELIVERED TO ITALIAN AIR FORCE", "NATO Rejects Gadhafi's Call for Cease-Fire. [253] The eight Tornados formerly stationed at RAF Akrotiri returned to RAF Marham in early February 2019, their duties assumed by six Typhoons. Nel settembre 1971 i tre governi si impegnarono a procedere nella costruzione del velivolo, che nel frattempo era stato rivalutato in chiave di attacco al suolo a bassa quota come possibile minaccia al blocco sovietico[21]. (68° sweep)

[125][89] The ASSTA 3 upgrade programme, started in 2008, will introduce support for the laser-targeted Joint Direct Attack Munition along with further software changes. Due di questi stormi vennero sciolti rispettivamente nel 2003 e nel 2005 e un terzo venne riequipaggiato con i Tornado ECR.

[52] The RSAF received its first ADV on 9 February 1989. There are three primary Tornado variants: the Tornado IDS (interdictor/strike) fighter-bomber, the suppression of enemy air defences Tornado ECR (electronic combat/reconnaissance) and the Tornado ADV (air defence variant) interceptor aircraft. Canada e Belgio avevano precedentemente abbandonato il progetto[13]: il primo per motivi politici (c'era la convinzione che la produzione e in generale tutto il progetto si sarebbero concentrati nell'Europa occidentale), il secondo perché si vide offerto dalla Francia il Dassault Mirage 5, che venne giudicato più conforme alle esigenze delle forze aeree belghe[13]. [179], Italian Tornado A-200 and EA-200 aircraft participated in the enforcement of a UN no-fly zone during the 2011 military intervention in Libya. On 17 November 1993, Italy signed an agreement with the RAF to lease 24 Tornado F3s from the RAF for a period of ten years.

While the Tornado itself was considered, any long term extension to the lease would have involved upgrade to RAF CSP standard and thus was not considered cost effective. [166], Italian Tornados, along with RAF Tornados, took part in the first Gulf War in 1991. [278] When the Tornado GR1s were upgraded to become GR4s, GR1A aircraft were upgraded to GR4A standard. [10][11] As the partner nations' requirements were so diverse, it was decided to develop a single aircraft that could perform a variety of missions that were previously undertaken by a fleet of different aircraft. Engines: Two Turbo Union RB199-103 turbofans with 15,800 lbs. [147][148] In support of the Afghanistan mission, improvements in the Tornado's reconnaissance equipment were accelerated; enhancing the Tornado's ability to detect hidden improvised explosive devices (IEDs). "Saudi Arabia considers Tornado fighter deal.". [240] In March 2011, several Tornados flew 3,000-mile (4,800 km) strike missions against targets inside Libya in what were, according to Defence Secretary Liam Fox, "the longest range bombing mission conducted by the RAF since the Falklands conflict". ", "Tornado jets that fly from RAF Marham in Norfolk clock up a million flying hours. “But the Tornado might fit all of those categories with the best of them.”. La dotazione di questi apparecchi era basata sui motori Mk 103, un calcolatore da 224Kb di RAM, schermi cartografici digitali a colori, HUD rinnovato, sistema ECM ARWE con disturbatore elettronico Elt-553 Mk 2. [50] The German ECRs do not carry a cannon. [52] The first Al-Yamamah agreement ordered 24 Tornado ADVs and 48 Tornado IDSs. [22], Cost saving decisions meant that the CSP did not fully exploit the capabilities of the AMRAAM or ASRAAM missiles.

Tornados were designed for low-level ground attack over Europe where cover from forests, hills, and could would off the pilots some protection.

The RSAF's experience with the first eight Tornado ADVs was negative". This content is imported from Instagram. Their fake watches are of very good quality and have very fast customer service response time. [184][185], In October 2018, it was announced that the EA-200 Tornado had successfully completed operational testing of the AGM-88E AARGM,[186] providing capabilities of an "expanded target set, counter-shutdown capability, advanced signals processing for improved detection and locating, geographic specificity, and a weapon impact-assessment broadcast capability. The Tornado ECR operated by Germany and Italy is devoted to Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) missions. La lunghezza della fusoliera passava a 18,08 m[1]. "First Upgraded Italian Tornado on show.".

"Tornado Variant Briefing: Part I: IDS and Recce".
Spick, Mike and William Green, Gordon Swanborough. "[159], In addition to the order made by the Luftwaffe, the German Navy's Marineflieger also received 112 of the IDS variant in the anti-shipping and marine reconnaissance roles, again replacing the Starfighter. [170], In 2000, with major delays hampering the Eurofighter, the Aeronautica Militare began a search for another interim fighter. The total number of Tornados delivered to the German Air Force numbered 247, including 35 ECR variants.

“The Middle East is not particularly known for its extensive forests,” says Kris Hendrix, a military historian at the RAF Museum. [6], The Tornado ADV was designed to serve in the role of an interceptor against the threat of Soviet bombers, rather than as an air superiority fighter for engaging in prolonged air combat manoeuvering with various types of enemy fighters. [60], The level of wing sweep (i.e. [71] To enhance pilot awareness, artificial feel was built into the flight controls, such as the centrally located stick. the angle of the wings in relation to the fuselage) can be altered in flight at the pilot's control. ", "Tornado Infra-Red Reconnaissance System (TIRRS) (United Kingdom), Airborne electro-optic (EO) systems. ", "Securing Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The Strategic Defence and Security Review. [249], On 10 July 2018, nine Tornado GR4s from RAF Marham participated in a flypast over London to celebrate 100 years of the RAF. More than 1,000 have been built and it will continue to fly in other air forces including that of Germany and Saudi Arabia, as of March 31 it was officially retired by the U.K, its roles being divided between the new Typhoon and Lightning. [199] In the event of the Cold War going 'hot', the majority of RAFG Tornado squadrons were tasked with destroying Warsaw Pact airfields and surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites in East Germany. Whether you’re landing in the desert or the outskirts of a Latvian village, finding significant space to build a landing strip can be a challenge, and the Tornado had something else up its sleeve which helped deal with this problem. [51] The September 1985 deal involved the purchase of a large number of Tornado aircraft; including the Tornado ADV variant, along with armaments, radar equipment, spare parts and a pilot-training programme for the inbound fleet, in exchange for providing 600,000 barrels of oil per day over the course of several years. [125] The aircraft being retained have been undergoing a service life extension programme. This £125 million project, announced on 5 March 1996, involved many elements, including the integration of ASRAAM and AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles, and radar upgrades to improve multi-target engagement. [175], In response to anticipated violence during the 2010 Afghanistan elections, Italy, along with several other nations, increased its military commitment in Afghanistan, dispatching four A-200 Tornados to the region. [6] The Tornado F3 made its maiden flight on 20 November 1985. At the end of the conflict, they used Paveway II laser-guided bombs against other strategic targets. "Tornado Variant Briefing: Part III: Tornado Operators".

[133] When one of the two Tornado wings of the German Navy was disbanded in 1994, its aircraft were used to re-equip a Luftwaffe's reconnaissance wing formerly equipped with RF-4E Phantoms. [131] Deliveries of production Tornados began on 27 July 1979. [12] In order to perform its anti-bomber primary mission, it was equipped with long range beyond visual range missiles such as the Skyflash, and later the AMRAAM; the aircraft also had the ability to stay aloft for long periods and remain over the North Sea and Northern Atlantic in order to maintain its airborne patrol. [134], 14 German Tornados undertook combat operations as a part of NATO's campaign during the Bosnian War.
Il Panavia Tornado (ufficialmente Panavia PA-200 Tornado, ma meglio conosciuto come Tornado MRCA - Multi Role Combat Aircraft) è un caccia multiruolo con ala a geometria variabile.

One advantage over the US competition was that a technology transfer between the partner nations had been agreed; the engine was to be developed and manufactured by a joint company, Turbo-Union. This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. This was Germany's first offensive air mission since World War II. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site.

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