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Other important cash crops and exports include copra, cacao and palm oil. Polynesian languages are spoken on Rennell and Bellona to the south, Tikopia, Anuta and Fatutaka to the far east, Sikaiana to the north east, and Luaniua to the north (Ontong Java Atoll, also known as Lord Howe Atoll). However, Sogavare's election was immediately shrouded in controversy because six MPs (thought to be supporters of Boseto) were unable to attend parliament for the crucial vote. [53], The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6) under aerial attack during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. June through August is the cooler period. Solomon Airlines connects Honiara to Nadi in Fiji, Port Vila in Vanuatu and Brisbane in Australia as well as to more than 20 domestic airports in each province of the country. The country takes its name from the Solomon Islands archipelago, which is a collection of Melanesian islands that also includes the North Solomon Islands (a part of Papua New Guinea), but excludes outlying islands, such as Rennell and Bellona, and the Santa Cruz Islands. American Marines rest during the 1942 Guadalcanal Campaign. As of 2018[update], there were 652,857 people in Solomon Islands.

[151] They also, however, hold the less enviable record for the worst defeat in the history of the Futsal World Cup,[clarification needed] when in 2008 they were beaten by Russia with two goals to thirty-one. The Solomons were first colonised by people coming from the Bismarck Islands and New Guinea during the Pleistocene era circa 30,000–28,8000 BC, based on archaeological evidence found at at Kilu Cave on Buka Island in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. Die Salomon Islands bestehen aus elf kleinen Inseln, von denen Boddam mit etwa 2200 × 500 Metern die größte ist, gefolgt von der nur etwas kleineren Île Anglaise. [140] Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Solomon Islands as of 2001. [64] He also had to deal with the effects of the conflict in neighbouring Bougainville which broke out in 1988, causing many refugees to flee to the Solomons. Die … The only mammals on this island are bats, rodents, and the native grey cuscus. [52] The relatively easy-going, friendly attitude of the Americans also contrasted sharply with the subservience expected by the British colonial rulers, and profoundly changed Solomons Islanders' attitude to the colonial regime. [36], Woodford's underfunded administration struggled to maintain law and order on the remote colony. [41] The German presence, along with pressure from the missionaries to rein in the excesses of the blackbirding system, prompted the British to declare a protectorate over the southern Solomons in March 1893, initially encompassing New Georgia, Malaita, Guadalcanal, Makira, Mono Island and the central Nggela Islands. [48] The conflict resulted in thousands of Allied, Japanese and civilian deaths, as well an immense destruction across the islands. Approximately 130,909 people share the space divided between the capital, Auki, and the inland regions, referred to as the bush. After their search for gold proved unsuccessful, the Spaniards abandoned Santa Isabel and established a settlement on the island of Guadalcanal. [72] The situation improved dramatically, with violence ending and Harold Keke surrendering to the force. [27][35], Beginning in the 1840s, and accelerating in the 1860s, islanders began to be recruited (or often kidnapped) as labourers for the colonies in Australia, Fiji and Samoa in a process known as "blackbirding". The road system in Solomon Islands is insufficient and there are no railways. On 27 December 2006, the Solomon Islands Government took steps to prevent the country's Australian police chief from returning to the Pacific nation. [140] While enrolment rates indicate a level of commitment to education, they do not always reflect children's participation in school. [37][38] Christian missionaries also began visiting the Solomons from the 1840s, beginning with an attempt by French Catholics under Jean-Baptiste Epalle to establish a mission on Santa Isabel, which was abandoned after Epalle was killed by islanders in 1845. Other Christian denominations are Jehovah's Witnesses, New Apostolic Church (80 churches) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

[25] However the settlement failed due to poor relations with the native peoples and epidemics of disease amongst the Spanish which caused numerous deaths, with Mendaña himself dying in October. [100] In September 2017, at the 72nd Session of the UN General Assembly, the Prime Ministers of the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu once again raised human rights abuses in Indonesian-occupied West Papua.[101]. "Lapita Colonization Across the Near/Remote Boundary". [69] New elections in December 2001 brought Allan Kemakeza into the Prime Minister's chair, with the support of his People's Alliance Party and the Association of Independent Members. However, Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the completion of its term. [96] Relations with Papua New Guinea, which had become strained because of an influx of refugees from the Bougainville rebellion and attacks on the northern islands of Solomon Islands by elements pursuing Bougainvillean rebels, have been repaired. [24], The first European to visit the islands was the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, sailing from Peru in 1568.

Since March 2014 Justice Edwin Goldsbrough has served as the President of the Court of Appeal for Solomon Islands. [25] Landing on Santa Isabel on 7 February, Mendaña explored several of the other islands including Makira, Guadalcanal and Malaita. In 2017 317,682 tons of coconuts were harvested making the country the 18th ranked producer of coconuts worldwide, and 24% of the exports corresponded to copra. [73] On 15 October 2000 the Townsville Peace Agreement was signed by the MEF, elements of the IFM, and the Solomon Islands Government. The archipelago is made up of several large islands and over 900 smaller islands, including volcanic and coral atolls. [27][28], Save for Abel Tasman's sighting of the remote Ontong Java Atoll in 1648, no European sailed to the Solomons again until 1767, when the British explorer Philip Carteret sailed by the Santa Cruz Islands, Malaita and, continuing further north, Bougainville and the Bismarck Islands.

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