There was no onboard recorder. IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellites) - Overview and early LEO Program of ISRO, Following the successful demonstration flights of Bhaskara-1 and Bhaskara-2 - experimental Earth observation satellites developed and built by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) - and launched in 1979 and 1981, respectively, India began the development of an indigenous IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) program. IRS-1C is an ISRO-built (Indian Space Research Organization) second generation remote sensing satellite with enhanced capabilities in terms of spatial resolution and spectral bands. 7) 8) 9) 10), 0.46 - 0.52 (blue)
9, No 1, 1999, pp. S/C mass = 870 kg, solar power = 510 W, two 21 Ah NiCd batteries.
These tools quickly enabled India to map, monitor and manage its natural resources at various spatial resolutions. IRS-1B (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite-1B). 0.62 - 0.68 µm
IRS-1C/1D data has been used for cartographic and town planning applications. Orbit: Sun-synchronous circular orbit with an equatorial crossing at 10:30 AM descending node, altitude = 817 km, inclination = 98.7º, repeat cycle = 24 days, period = 101.35 min. The scanner operates in the spectral range of 0.57-0.7 µm. From September 2006, SS (Sun Side) panels release and arrest operations were performed in a controlled way similar to ASS panel and released in all orbits from Jan. 2007 onwards. This time around, the PSLV functioned correctly, allowing IRS-P2 to assume its orbit. Irrigation command area status monitoring, Snow-melt run-off estimates for planning water use in down stream projects. Space Imaging of Thornton, CO (the Landsat-4 and -5 data distributor) bought the worldwide commercial distribution rights for IRS-1C/D imagery and follow-up IRS series data from Antrix Corp. of Bangalore (the commercial arm of India's Department of Space) in 1995.
Afterwards, the S/C was being used for conducting various experiments including studying the design margins of the various subsystems and to test different modes of operation using the available fuel.
A lens assembly for each spectral band is used for better performance and effective utilization of the full dynamic range of the CCDs. Launch: October 15, 1994 from SHAR (Sriharikota Launching Range) with a PSLV-D2 launcher. 12) 13), 0.52 - 0.59 µm 0.62-0.68 131-136, ISRO, Bangalore, 15) http://www.euromap.de/docs/doc_002.html, 16) A. S. Kirankumar, P. N. Babu, R. Bisht, ”A Study of On-Orbit Behavior of InGaAs SWIR Channel Device of IRS-1C/1D LISS-III Camera,” Proceedings of International Symposium on Earth Observation System for Sustainable Development,” Feb. 25-27, 1998, Bangalore, India, pp. A LED is mounted on either side of the photodiode array. Following the successful demonstration flights of Bhaskara-1 and Bhaskara-2 satellites launched in 1979 and 1981, respectively, India began to develop the indigenous Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite program to support the national economy in the areas of agriculture, water resources, forestry and ecology, geology, water sheds, marine fisheries and coastal management. 14) 15), 70 km nadir view (91 km swath for the most inclined cross-track view), ± 26º swath steering range (with this a revisit cycle of 5 days is achieved), Table 2: Specifications of the PAN camera, Figure 4: Illustration of the PAN camera (image credit: ISRO).
I, p. 71, ERIM, Ann Arbor, MI, 1990, 6) IRS NewsLetter, ISRO, Vol. MEOSS has a single lens with a focal length of 61.6 mm and 3 CCD line sensor arrays. • The first generation satellites IRS-1A and 1B were designed, developed and launched successfully during 1988 and 1991 with multispectral cameras with spatial resolutions of 72.5 m and 36 m, respectively. The total swath is formed by using two optical heads (i.e., two lenses and two CCDs) per band. The time taken for one calibration cycle for the PAN camera is approximately 1.8 s. The LEDs are operated at pulsed mode and the duration for which the LEDs are 'ON' is varied in specific steps.
The pushbroom camera uses refractive optics in four spectral bands (separate optics and detector array for each band). Launch: March 17, 1988 on a Russian launch vehicle Vostok-2M from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazhakstan. Launch: The launch occurred on Sept. 20 1993 from SHAR (Sriharikota Launching Range, Andhra Pradesh, ISRO's main launch site, India, located on India's east coast at 13.57º N, 80.293º E, about 100 km north of Chennai).
LISS-I, -II (Linear Imaging Self-Scanning Sensor). GAF of Munich, Germany, bought from Space Imaging the IRS distribution rights for Europe. The attitude is sensed by star sensors, Earth sensors and gyros. In spite of this handicap, ISRO controllers were able to place the satellite into a functional sun-synchronous (near-circular) orbit of 737 km perigee and 821 km apogee (use of hydrazine thrusters). Attitude determination accuracy of ±0.1º. Spacecraft operations were ended in 1992. The IRS program started in the mid 1980s. Six non-zero exposure levels spanning the full dynamic range are provided for each detector. • Subsequently, the second generation remote sensing satellites IRS-1C and -1D with improved spatial resolutions have been developed and successfully launched in 1995 and 1997, respectively.
5) 6), Figure 1: Illustration of the IRS-1A spacecraft (image credit: ISRO). Note: The availability of Landsat imagery created a lot of interest in the science community. LISS-3 (Linear Imaging Self-Scanning Sensor): Continuous service of multispectral imagery. The second was to establish and operate ground stations for spacecraft control, data transfer along with data processing and archival. Observation of the Earth and its Environment. Orbit: sun-synchronous orbit, nominal altitude = 904 km, inclination = 99.049º, period = 103.2 minutes; the repeat cycle = 22 days; equator crossing at 10:26 hours on descending node. The LISS-IIM instruments (there are two just as LISS-II A/B) are realized with a single optical feed utilizing the full ±5º FOV (there are 4 lenses in one optical head). The ground resolution is 32 m (cross-track) x 37 m (along-track). Two LEDs are for optical biasing and two are for inflight calibration of the sensor (calibration of CCDs excluding optics). The collecting optics consists of eight refractive lens elements with interference filter in front. The design life is three years. Downlink broadcast of R/T science data in X-band (8.316 GHz, PCM/QPSK/PM modulation, data rate = 2 x 10.4 Mbit/s) to a dedicated ground station network and to a general user community. 7, April 10, 1996, pp. Occultations, 35.75 GHz Ka-band altimeter S Padmavathy, V. Jayaraman, Uday Raj, “Inter Sensor Comparison of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite - 1A Linear Imaging Self Scanning Sensors for Radiometric behavior,” ACRS (Asian Conference on Remote Sensing) 1991, Oct. 30-Nov. 5, 1991, Singapore, http://www.gisdevelopment.net/aars/acrs/1991/mapfs/mapfs04pf.htm, 10) http://www.csre.iitb.ac.in/isro/irs-1b.html, 11) “India Expands Access to Imagery,” Space News Aug. 26 - Sept. 8, 1991, p. 22, 12) “India Calls IRS-1B Launch a Success,” Space News, September 9-15, 1991, p. 12, 13) “IRS-1B Completes 10 years of Remote Sensing Mission,” Aug. 29, 2001, URL: http://asia.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=5875, 14) Note: The satellite designations P1, P2, P3, etc. 331-354, 3) K. Kasturirangan, G. Joseph, et al., “IRS Mission,” Current Science, Vol. The S/C structure consists of the main platform and the payload platform (aluminum honeycomb structure). Each LED is followed by diverging optics. 13.515 GHz Eventually, a continuous supply of synoptic, repetitive, multispectral data of the Earth's land surfaces was obtained (similar to the US Landsat program).
Calibration: Inflight calibration of the LISS-3 camera is realized with LEDs (1.55 µm) as illuminating source and operated in pulsed mode to generate six intensity levels. North Eastern District Resources Plan (NEDRP)- www.nedrp.gov.in, This page was last edited on 10 September 2020, at 02:00. radiometer Spacecraft: IRS-1C and IRS … 617-620, Stuttgart, 1986, 17) M. Lehner, “Triple stereoscopic imagery simulation and digital image correlation for Monocular Electro-optical Stereo Scanner (MEOSS) project,” ESA Proceedings of the International Symposium on Progress in Imaging Sensors, Nov. 1986, pp. The launch of the IRS-1D spacecraft with the PSLV-C1 was a significant event despite a minor snag; for the first time, an Indian-made launch vehicle had launched an operational satellite, also made in India, from Indian soil (i.e., after the two demonstration flights, namely: IRS-P2 and -P3). The S/C mass is 1350 kg; S/C design life = 3 years; the onboard recorder capacity is 62 Gbit with an input/output data rate of 42.45 Mbit/s. 1-13, 5) K. Kasturirangan, et al., ”Indian remote sensing satellite (IRS)-1C - The beginning of a new era,” Current Science, Vol. The MEOSS concept had already been demonstrated on an airborne platform of DLR in 1986 and in 1989.
The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized using conically scanning Earth sensors and dynamically tuned gyros for attitude sensing, and reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and monopropellent hydrazine thrusters as actuators. 6.6, 10.65, 18, 21 GHz (frequencies), 360 x 236 India's remote sensing program was developed with the idea of applying space technologies for the benefit of human kind and the development of the country. TT&C function is provided by ISTRAC (ISRO Tracking Network), supported by DLR (GSOC, Weilheim), NOAA (Fairbanks), ESA (Malindi) and the USSR (Bearslake) ground stations.
Two linear CCD arrays are used with 2048 pixels/element (size of 13 µm/pixel). With constraints imposed by these systems, payload operation service was continued beyond a decade and till now. 10).
The initial program of Earth-surface imaging was extended by the addition of sensors for complementary environmental applications. Prior to the IRS-1E flight, MEOSS was also launched on the SROSS-2 (Stretched Rohini Satellite Series) mission of ISRO (July 13, 1988 on ISRO's ASLV launcher). 105x68, 66x43, 40x26, 34x22 (km for frequency sequence), 0.40-0.90 8 bands
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