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female prime minister of france

Following the 1997 legislative elections, women now make up close to 11% of députés, but still only 5.9% of senators. [14], On 11 July 2006, in a judgment by the European Court of Justice on Case C-432/04 (Commission of the European Communities versus Édith Cresson), the Court declared that Édith Cresson acted in breach of her obligations as a European Commissioner.

Conservative parties have tried to convince the public that the Left was not the only political group anxious to carve out a better place for women in politics.

[1][2][3] [14], Berthelot worked only as a personal advisor to Cresson.

Terms of Use Others believe the French president foresaw major international trade issues looming as the trans-European Union came into existence, and sought Cresson's expertise in trade affairs. In February 1999, 14 prominent women, including philosopher Elisabeth Badinter, lawyer Evelyne Pisier and writer Danièle Sallenave, publicly voiced their opposition to forced parity. Subsequent to a fraud inquiry the European Commission said that Cresson in her capacity as the Research Commissioner "failed to act in response to known, serious and continuing irregularities over several years". "[5] The Cresson Government also placed considerable emphasis during its time in office on facilitating the international competitiveness of firms with under 500 employees. Privacy Policy. A complaint was made by a member of parliament, and a criminal investigation concerning Berthelot was opened in Belgium in 1999.

For feminists fighting for gender blindness, the law therefore represented a step backward.

In assembling her new cabinet of 29 members she chose a number of holdovers from the government of her predecessor.
The US experience with affirmative action, for example, suggested that forced integration had serious limitations. Guidance for the Brookings community and the public on our response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) », Learn more from Brookings scholars about the global response to coronavirus (COVID-19) ». But when in November 1995, then Prime Minister Alain Juppé dismissed eight of the twelve women in his government only six months after their appointment—an incident that was dubbed “Black Tuesday” in the US press—the image of the Right as a potential advocate of women in politics was shattered. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. [9] Under a law of 10 July 1991, access to legal information “was also included as part of the legal aid system.”[10] A water law was passed in January 1992 "to ensure the protection of water quality and quantity and aquatic ecosystems,"[11] and in February 1992 a law was passed to promote citizens' consultation.[12].

EU rules specify a maximum duration of 24 months for visiting scientists, but Berthelot spent two and a half years in the position. Nevertheless, more fair-minded criticism about her ability to command majorities in the National Assembly persisted. Women have long been underrepresented in French politics. The situation is similar within the national government. The constitutional reform was approved by 745 votes to 43, with 48 abstaining.

Raised by a British nanny, she became fluent in the English language.

Yes, I'd like to receive Word of the Day emails from Early advances for women were made in the 1970s under the conservative Presidency of Valéry Giscard D?Estaing, when such prominent women as Simone Veil and Françoise Giroud entered the government. At the local level, women’s representation is even lower.

Cresson's husband, Jacques, a retired executive of Peugeot, the French automobile and appliance company, remained supportive of his wife, and their relationship has been likened to that of Margaret Thatcher and her husband. While the breach of the obligations arising from the office of Member of the Commission calls, in principle, for the imposition of a penalty, the Court held that, having regard to the circumstances of the case, the finding of breach constituted, of itself, an appropriate penalty and, accordingly, decided not to impose on Cresson a penalty in the form of a deprivation of her right to a pension or other benefits.[15][16][17].

Encyclopedia of World Biography. Deputy-mayor of Châtellerault, 1997–2008. She resigned only six months after her appointment. On June 28, 1999, articles 3 and 4 of the French Constitution were amended. In 1991, he appointed the first and only female Prime Minister, Edith Cresson.
While a European Commissioner, Cresson was the main target in the fraud allegations that led to the resignation of the Santer Commission in 1999.

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